Towards a spatial epidemiology of hate

The relationship between airs, waters and spaces are connected to our individual and collective well-being, write Hippocrates, the ancient greek physician. However, the first clear use of disease diffusion mapping is not found until the cholera maps of John Snow, which were used to identify the source of the outbreak at the end of the 19th century.

What John Snow discovered was that locating infection data on a map could yield radically new understanding about a disease. Doing so in response to cholera started the research into microbes, previously inconceivably and invisible organisms, as sources for ill health. Rather than making visible that which was thought to exist, Snows maps also revealed that which was previously invisible, intellectually inconceivable and unknown. Visualizing data provided answers, but more importantly it changed the nature of the questions.

Since Snow’s map, both our mapping tools and data collection strategies have become increasingly more sophisticated and complex. Regrettably, the politics of how data is collected and where boundaries are drawn are now often used to create maps which do not change questions but rather verify dominant mythologies and ideologies, as “How to Lie with Maps” by Mark Monmonier shows so clearly.

Disturbed by the amount of vitriol and Islamophobia in the United States during the 10th anniversary of September 11, I was wondering what would happen if we were to map all the incidents of aggression against Muslims and those who were perceived to be Muslim in space and also in time.

BIASMAP, a spatial epidemiology of hate tracks bias and prejudice by crowdsourcing reports of perceived discrimination and overt expressions of hate directed against specific groups of people. With Biasmap we ask, what patterns emerge? What questions are created, when we see time periods and geographic areas where this aggression is more prominent? Do the clusters of aggression spread out over time?

Some research points to the fear of infection by outsiders as the basis for prejudicial behavior. Biasmap asks, Is hate and prejudice infectious and what are the means and methods of transmission of this disease? How does official hate speech of political candidates and public figures spread to the people around them?

It is now 2013 and we are about to launch a new phase of the project and we want you to be a part of it. We want everyone to be able to help out. Together we will map the aggression and prejudice against us and all of our brothers and sisters. Muslims, Jews, Black, Brown, Yellow and White, Lesbian , Gay, Transgendered, politically left and perhaps even politically conservative. If we logged this aggression, what questions will we are able to answer and more importantly what new questions would emerge?

BIASMAP.ORG, is a web-based mapping tool that allows everyone to report incidents of prejudice and hate via text messages, emails and even twitter.

The mapping is not limited to criminal activity, but includes the small almost imperceptible moments when you realize that something just happened that was unfair or unkind, because of who you are. We walk away from those moments all the time. Often we are made to think that we imagined not getting the job because of our gender, our race or our country of origin. While we may never know the answer, recording these moments is one of the motivations behind BIASMAP. Imagine that everyone that had one of those experiences mapped it. What patterns might we discover?

A coincidence is a one-time occurrence, a pattern is a collections of coincidence organized in time and or space.

BIASMAP’s goal is not to know, but instead to see and to discover.

Traditional and legal approaches to the problem of prejudice focus on the perpetrator, on the person committing the act against the victim. Adorno called this the authoritarian mind.

What happens if we collectively say, we believe you had this experience, regardless of who or what might have caused it? If you say this happened and this is how I felt. What happens, if we do not ask who did it and instead paid attention to how many people had similar experiences in the same place?

Bias is invisible and often unverifiable, but our experience of it is real. While we may not see the “microbes” of this “prejudice disease,” we see the effects on people and things. It is your experience; it causes changes in your body. Physical changes. Biopsychosocial models show stress related to ill health and detrimental to positions in work and society. What might happen when maps of prejudice experiences are overlaid over maps of city services, income, quality of education, and public health data?

Making these experiences visible might make us realize that we can no longer pretend that they do not exist or that the problem is not that bad.

People will say that this will create changes in behavior. People will stop going to those places. This is true, Egyptian women, informed of the high number of assaults in Tahrir Square, certainly changed their behaviors. Some men also changed theirs, setting up private patrols, organizing protests and interventions to reclaim these spaces.

The collection of harassment data in Egypt, has elevated the problem to the level of a national debate and for the first time people are openly talking about the problem in public media.

By logging the experiences of people and mapping them, these acts of aggression that thrive on secrecy are being made visible, allowing artists, educators and activists to respond with strategic and tactical actions.

Like John Snow in 1854, we are blind, and we are formulating questions based on blindness. How will our questions change, when we can see, perhaps for the first time, what is actually happening.

Join us on BIASMAP.org and help make the invisible – visible.

Huang, J. Y. et al. “Immunizing Against Prejudice: Effects of Disease Protection on Attitudes Toward Out-Groups.”

Racism as a stressor for African Americans. A biopsychosocial model. Clark R, Anderson NB, Clark VR, Williams DR.

Adorno, T. W., Frenkel-Brunswik, E., Levinson, D.J., Sanford, R. N. (1950). The Authoritarian Personality. Norton: NY.

Laughter – Every joke is a Tiny Revolution

A joke about education, an educational joke

Student asks his principal, “Where is my teacher?”.
“Citywide layoffs”, replies the principal.
“My text books?” asks the student.
“State austerity plan”, says the principal.
“Student loan?” continues the student.
“Federal budget cuts”, says the principal.
Finally, exasperated, student asks, “But how am I going to get an education?”.
To which the equally exasperated principal replies, “This is your education”.

Occupy was no joke, but it was fun

Occupy was a signal for change, but was it actual change? Perhaps we can say that it was an idea, transmitted from person to person as they found themselves outdoors and surrounded by others. Let’s think about this as a meme.

Memes are part of a genetic theory of culture (Dawkins, 1975), in which they act as a unit for transmitting ideology, ideas, symbols or practices, from from person to person within a culture. Memes, like #peopleofwallmart, #bindersfullofwomen, #peppersprayingcop, spread through writing, speech, gestures, rituals and most notably in recent years through the internet. Similar to genetic material, they replicate, mutate and even respond to external pressures. Unlike genetics, they often are intentionally created.

“We need a change. Let’s do something”, says Occupy with a unified voice, but when asked about the kind of change needs to happen, a multiplicity of voices raise a vast number of options. A meme is like that. It creates a movement but not necessarily in a single direction. A meme, much like its generic counterpart must mutate in order to survive. A meme must evolve before it grows stale.

Vaccinations and immunology

The virus for the common influenza models the most successful strategy. It mutates so quickly the annual vaccines against it are just guessing games. We should take lesson from the common flu, mutate more quickly than the vaccine. Our tactics to challenge capitalism, like a virus, must be at least in part focussed on self-preservation. Perhaps too, we should invert the idea and speak about capitalism as a virus and of our struggle as the struggle of the immune system. For every mutation of capitalism we must develop a specific response. Any singular solution is stagnation, means to be defeated. When occupy stalled, the system pushed back and dismantled the camps. The struggle for self-preservation, the fight against capitalism, has to remain a process not a goal. The strategy must be a rapid evolution of ideas, of tactics. In the war of ideas the strategy against defeat is a refusal to be labeled or defined.

What is the difference between capitalism and socialism?
In capitalism, man exploits man. In socialism, it’s the other way around.

(r)Evolutionary Struggle

MEME warfare calls for creative acts of envisioning – imagination at it’s best – the possibility of co-creation, mutation and re-creation. The power of humor and creative thinking is in solving problems through an indirect approach, using reasoning that is not always obvious and involving ideas that may not be obtainable by using a traditional step-by-step logic. Creative thinking is to jump from A to D and then think, or let others think, about about steps B and C.

The joke is on you

When humans are faced with frustration of their desires, writes Freud, and are forced to subjugate themselves, they joke. the darkest, blackest humor is expressed in places where oppression, war,rape and murder are common place. Jokes are an intellectual rebellion, creating alternative realities, realities in which we are able to laugh instead of cry about the pain we feel.

Honecker and Mielke are discussing their hobbies. Honecker: “I collect (ich sammele) all the jokes about me.” Mielke: “Well we have almost the same hobby. I round up (ich sammele) all those who tell jokes about you.”

Freud identifies the tendentious joke, intentional and by its nature social, requiring joke teller, a joke hearer and a third entity who is the subject or target of the joke. These Jokes reveal the ideology of the teller through their choice of subject matter and language or in contemporary terms, the medium in which it is conveyed.

However, we can expand on the idea of the subject of the joke as well. Consider the turkish saying Kızım sana söylüyorum, gelinim sen anla. – Lit. “I’m talking to you my daughter, listen up my daughter-in-law.” In this sense we can identify jokes which have are used to instruct others about inappropriate behavior and faulty reasoning by being indirect.

Money, clothing, status – a didactic joke from the Middle East

One day at his most desperate, Nasruddin went into the garden, knelt and cried out: ‘O Allah, send me some money, for I am poor and in need’

His neighbor, a man who hated religious people, thought he would play a joke on Nasruddin. Taking a bag of hundred gold pieces he threw it down from a window.

Nasruddin stood up with dignity and took the money to his wife. ‘God has accepted my pleas,’ he told her. ‘Here is his gift to me, lets go and buy food from the market’

Hearing that Nasruddin was about to spend the money, the neighbor went to get his money back.

‘I heard you calling for it, and I played a joke on you’ said the neighbor .
‘I was given by God” says Nasruddin, “You shall never have it’.
The neighbor said that he would take Nasruddin to the court of summary jurisdiction.
‘I cannot go like this’, said Nasruddin. ‘I have no suitable clothes, not have I a horse. If we appear together the judge will be prejudiced in your favor by my mean appearance.’
The neighbor took off his own cloak and gave it to Nasruddin, then he mounted him on his own horse, and they went before the judge.
‘What is your complaint?’ the magistrate asked Nasruddin.
‘That my neighbor is insane’.
“He thinks that everything belongs to him.” replies Nasruddin.
“If you ask him about this horse i rode he will say it is his” says Nasruddin.
‘But it is mine!’ replies the neighbor.
“If you ask him about this cloak i am wearing, he will say it is his” says Nasruddin
‘Yes, it is mine!’ shouts the neighbor.
“Even this bag of gold I am holding in my hand, he claims for himself” says Nasruddin
‘Yes, it is all mine!’ roars the neighbor.
“I have heard enough, case dismissed” says the judge as he throws Nasruddin and the neighbor out of the courtroom.

When thinking about jokes such as these it is important not just to identify with Nasruddin, but also with the neighbor and even the judge. How often do we think like the neighbor, that what we have is due to us because of the work we have performed and not just a share of a collective good? And like the judge, how often do we dismiss ideas and people because we feel we have heard enough to make an accurate judgement? And lastly, like Nasruddin, who asks in all sincerity from the universe for that which he needs?

Every joke is a tiny revolution.

Jokes and funny stories do not just reveal our unconscious, our ideological base to others and at time even to ourselves, they also shape or change our attitudes about things when we listen to jokes. This is how jokes can be used to perpetuate and combat ideologies; to teach sexism, racism, selfishness or to dislodge them.

Writes Mikhail Bakhtin (1981) “Laughter demolishes fear and piety before an object, before a world, making of it an object of familiar contact and thus clearing the ground for an absolutely
free investigation of it.”

“A thing is funny when — in some way that is not actually offensive or frightening — it upsets the established order. Every joke is a tiny revolution.” – George Orwell (1945)

So this then is a call to action a call to make more intentional jokes, ideological memes, which are repeated over and over again, proliferate quickly, and mutate.
This is a call a call for tiny revolutions, they need not be pragmatic, but they must be funny.

Mural which reads capitalism is over.
Mural in Clarion Alley , San Francisco, CA

Occupy possibilities – reflections on OCCUPY, art and activism (ENGLISH)


To some political activists the ideological incoherence and lack of a concrete agenda of the occupy Wall Street movement was a bothersome and at times seen as a weakness.  To others the action, devoid of traditional organizing and rallying calls was dismissed as harmless street theatre[1].

I want to propose another possibility. In looking at OWS as an act of culture jamming, of activist art, which carried in it a certain amount of ambiguity, OWS functioned in the tradition of a many good works of art, allowing for multiple possible perceptions. In so doing OWS remained interesting and engaging to peoples minds, causing it to occupy the minds and media of America and the world. By virtue of its apparent lack of a clear demand OWS succeed to fundamentally change the national debate.

where to go - hand made sign posted on street lamp in kassel germany. photo by ian pollock
hand made sign posted anonymously on street lamp in kassel germany.
photo by ian pollock

The ambiguity of the OWS action, the refusal to answer the question: ”what is our one simple demand”, the absence of a leader in favor of a polylouge and a plurality of opinion on the part of the participants and the observers, allowed for many voices to be heard.  At times these voices even seemed to contradict each other. While some demanded a complete change of the economic system and spoke of an end to capitalism, others advocated for political and financial reform.


Occupy Wall Street began on 17 September 2011 in Zuccotti Park, located in New York City’s Wall Street financial district. Like a meme, Occupy quickly spread across the U.S. and the globe. Camps organized ad hoc in major cities of 82 countries, according to some accounts.

It was not until some time after that, that people in the camps began to organize and hold meetings, where many of the now-familiar demands were finally articulated. Unlike political movements, OWS remained essentially leaderless. Voices eventually emerged to communicate with the public; yet, even as slogans such as “We are the 99%.” grew into popularity, plurality and differences of opinion remained a hallmark of the occupations. Some voices were decidedly anti-capitalist and re-iterated leftist politics of prior movements while others demanded greater oversight over the existing capitalist system.

OWS is culture jamming. The term “culture jamming” is attributed to the band Negativeland, who in 1984 coined the term based on the idea of radio jamming (in which public frequencies are pirated and either subverted for independent communication or simply to disrupt the official discourse).

Culture jamming practiced as an art strategy exposes questionable political assumptions behind commercial culture, by sending out false or confusing signals in the form of false advertisements, press releases or by altering consumer products.

While the term is negativeland’s, culture jamming as strategy of cultural resistance dates back farther and can be seen in the in the photomontages of John Heartfield, projects such as the films and posters of the Situationist International, the alterations of street advertisements by the billboard liberation front, the altered dolls of Barbie liberation front and identity corrections of the Yes Men.

Culture jamming even has its own magazine the Canadian magazine Adbusters, regularly features campaigns to subvert popular consumer culture and is attributed with creating the seed of the idea of what was to become Occupy Wall Street.  Adbusters is partially rooted in the First Things First Manifesto, which rallies graphic designers by concluding that “Consumerism is running uncontested; it must be challenged by other perspectives expressed, in part, through the visual language and resource of design.”

On 13 July 2011, it was Adbusters, the Canadian magazine that sent the following excerpt to their email list:  “On September 17, we want to see 20,000 people flood into lower Manhattan, set up tents, kitchens, peaceful barricades and occupy Wall Street for a few months. Once there, we shall incessantly repeat one simple demand in a plurality of voices. Tahrir succeeded in large part because the people of Egypt made a straightforward ultimatum – that “Mubarak must go” – over and over again until they won. Following this model, what is our equally uncomplicated demand?”

Occupy’s success can be seen in part as ingenious branding and marketing. It was one word… a call to action… a mobilizing verb… a rally call… describing the action to be taken… describing the phenomenon that was being witnessed. Occupy Wall Street, can also be understood as a massive collaboration in culture jamming. A spectacle so disruptive that the word “occupy” became one of the most used words in the world in 2011/2012.

The brain is the way humans make sense of the world.  It is a filter, which looks at the things in world and removes the essential qualities of things in the world and searches for the essential and constant values of that thing.  Our knowledge of the world must therefore take into account not only the facts we observe, but also the way in which the brain processes these facts.

Occupy Wall Street was clearly visible, beamed around the world, to large to ignore.  Minds confronted by this observation begin to process.  There is the countable, the appearance, the tangible.  Everything added up, this was indeed an occupation by a large group of people.  Even the name of the action told us so.  Even the reason why it was happening was more of less clear – the economy was in bad shape and something, anything had to be done.

But what was the demand of this occupation, no one seemed to know, or more exactly everyone seemed to know something else.  Even the media, charged with bringing the world closer and helping us understand it was puzzled by this phenomenon. Worse yet as time went on the ambiguity did not subside. It is in this tension between the clearly visible and the undefinable that created the unique media event called OWS. It was the absence of labels, of known ideologies, the refusal or the deference/differance of an easy designation that forced the conversations to continue.

At times we may think of mass media, newspaper, television, radio as a kind of extension of our senses.  We trust that they will capture that which is important for us and help us understand.  As the media struggled to articulate what OWS was about, it became increasingly apparent that there was no singular answer.

Perhaps we can see the correlation of a media which reduces an event to a single stream of information, a radio show, a newspaper article and broadcasts it to many people and political movements of old who have a unified voice which speaks on behalf of the masses.  Fast forward to 2012, and we see that a new media has emerged – ustream, twitter, facebook – the age of many to many communication.  A new media which represents many voices for a movement which has many demands. Occupy Wall Street was a many to many event, leaderless, unified not by a cause but an opposition to a condition.

Perhaps we can also see the correlation of OWS and a work of art, which refuses to yield to a singular interpretation and instead embracing ambiguity and plurality of meaning.  Occupy Wall Street was a work of art, completed by the participant and the observer.  Leaving room for each person to find their own meaning in the action.  Allowing individual ideas and personal meaning to emerge from the action, rather then having a fixed idea be the cause of the action.


Ambiguity is sometimes described as a lack of certainty or a state of having limited knowledge, an impossibility to describe an existing state, or a future outcome, or the possibility of more than one outcome.

The brain is the way humans make sense of the world.  It is a filter, which looks at the things in world and removes the essential qualities of things in the world and searches for the essential and constant values of that thing.  Our knowledge of the world must therefore take into account not only the facts we observe, but also the way in which the brain processes these facts.

In the article “The neurology of ambiguity” [2]Semir Zeki speaks about ambiguity in art.  Rather, than uncertainty of a meaning, ambiguity is the rapid succession of certainties “on the conscious stage – the certainty of many, equally plausible interpretations, each one of which is sovereign when it occupies the conscious stage”

He continues that since “ each interpretation … is as valid as the other interpretations, and there is no correct interpretation. Ambiguity therefore is the obverse of constancy. “

This constant flow between more than one of many equal possibilities Zeki argues, is the hallmark of great works of art and his neurological research might suggest that part of this lies in the kind of activity the brain undergoes when viewing.

In another study[3] by Martina Jakesch and Helmut Leder ambiguity mapped against interestingness created an inverted U-shaped function, which the authors correlated to Berlyne’s arousal theory.

By refusing to answer the question:” what is our one single demand?” OWS created a search for an answer not just in the minds of the participants, but more importantly in the minds of the observers as well.  This continuing search for an answer allowed OWS to stay in the conversation and ultimately resulted in many political platforms to develop.  Most notably the conversations around greater regulation of banks, conversations around capital gains tax rates and the so-called 99%.  Unlike the encampments around the world, conversation about class and wealth, unthinkable in the United States of 2010, are now part of the national debate and will play a major role in the elections of 2012.

Looking at the lack of ideological clarity and identification of the occupy movement and the unanswered question what is our one single demand might allow us then to speculate why Occupy Wall Street was able to capture the imaginations of so many people and the media.

It may also explain why the two strategies, being physically removed from the visual environment or official sanction by the documenta art bienale or civic bodies – succeeded in dissipating the interest and activity.  By resolving the ambiguity of “what is occupy?” into a movement of opposition and a protest, the popular curiosity of OWS faded and so has the media coverage of the movement.

Perhaps the question of “what is our one single demand” must now be rephrased to read “what is our next one great action?” or “where to go from here?”

[1] May 3, 2012 Deciphering the Occupy Wall Street Movement By Robert Weissberg http://www.americanthinker.com/2012/05/deciphering_the_occupy_wall_street_movement.html

[2] “The neurology of ambiguity” Consciousness and Cognition 13 (2004) 173–196  Semir Zeki

[3]  “Finding meaning in art: Preferred levels of ambiguity in art appreciation” Experimental Psychology (2009 November); 62(11): 2105–2112.  Martina Jakesch and Helmut Leder

Occupy possibilities – reflections on OCCUPY, art and activism (GERMAN)


Einige politische Aktivisten haben ideologische Inkoheränz und Fehlen eines konkreten Programms bei der Occupy Wall Street Bewegung als irritierend oder gar als Schwäche empfunden. Andere sahen in der Aktion, die ohne bekannte Organisationsform und ohne die gewohnten Aufrufe zur Mo- bilisierung entstand, nur harmloses Straßentheater.1

where to go - hand made sign posted on street lamp in kassel germany. photo by ian pollock
hand made sign posted anonymously on street lamp in kassel germany.
photo by ian pollock

In diesem Artikel möchte ich eine andere Sicht der Dinge vorstellen. Wenn man die Occupy Bewegung als culture jamming, als Aktionskunst begreift, die sich einer eindeutigen Interpretation entzieht, dann stand die Occupy Bewegung in der Tradition vieler guter Kunstwerke und ermöglichte ganz unterschiedliche Sichtweisen. So blieb die Occupy Bewegung interessant und Denkprozesse aus. Sie war in den Diskussionen und Medien in Amerika und der Welt präsent. Gerade weil die Occupy Bewegung anscheinend keine klaren Forderungen hatte, veränderte sie die nationale Debatte tiefgreifend. Continue reading

Perhaps the Postmaster General should go visit the Public Library

This year the post office will close over half of its mail centers, 3000 post offices and lay off 200.000 employees. Some people say that the post office has outlived its usefulness, that email and electronic subscriptions of magazines have eroded the traditional consumer services. The USPS themselves see their core business as first class business mail and is making the cuts accordingly.

The USPS, once the model many other countries aspired to copy, seems to be ungracefully and preparing to die. No doubt this is cheered on by those destructive elements in American society who would see this as one notch on their belt in the long battle to privatize the public sector. The post office has been systematically destroyed by allowing private business to gut its core function. So what are the possibilities?

In Germany and in Holland the post office also maintains one of the biggest banks. You can send wire transfers and cash checks, etc. Everyday people visit the post offices to do their banking and mail their letters. I imagine that they are in better shape than their American counterpart.

The USPS also thought about how they might grow, unfortunately this effort was led by some very uncreative thinking people – the result – some years back the post office made suggestions to tax email, in an effort to stay alive.

So the question is, do we shut down this public service and if not, then what are we willing to do to keep this massive institution alive?

Some time back the San Francisco Public Library looked at its mission and came to the conclusion that it was not about books, but rather information. Armed with this 21st century vision, the San Francisco Public Library now has a worker on staff to work with the homeless as an outreach worker, and maintains a great job center and banks of public access computers. I think this is a good example of an institution, which reflects on its role in a changing world and re-interprets its mission with criticality and creativity.

If the post office is not a place where you send mail, but a service, which creates a connection for the people with each other and their government, why not extend and consolidate services?

Sadly the post office is not in good shape on many levels and seemingly not willing to think outside the envelope. I am living in an artist building, the building has been receiving a single bag of mail since 1972, which has to be sorted by the people living here, because the post office continues to maintain that this is not a legal address and therefore not eligible to receive sorted mail for its tenants. Of course the 30 or so long term residents, the telephone company, the fire department, the city planners and even the mayor of the city and do not suffer from this cognitive dissonance.  So maybe the day has come to let the post office go and create a new public service to distribute information and provide access to government services. The Libraries seem like they might be able to do a better job. Maybe we can host our mailboxes in TR 700, where all the art books are kept.

Then again, maybe it is a question of creating services that the post office could perform. Imagine that you have a company that visits every American household 5-6 days a week, 365 days a year. What services might you be able to offer to private industry cheaper, better and more secure? How about flowers and organic produce boxes, what about the census? Voter registration? Meals on wheels? Social Work?  Perhaps the post office could extend its mission and reach by thinking about alternative uses for the post offices or the delivery people.  How about providing citywide Wi-Fi – a virtual post delivery system?

What would you do if you were the Postmaster General?


The day I saw the world wide web

I don’t know if this was truly the first time that I saw the world wide web, but it is the day I have chosen to represent that time.  It must have been one or two years after Kevin Kelly (Wired magazine) had organized the first cyberthon in 1990. Continue reading

Frontpage Design or putting yourself out there

A collection of starting pages for web based services.  I am collecting these to see how well or how poorly the page explains what the service is, who it is for, and how to proceed. The frontpage a quite a challenge in most cases since it will typically try to compel the user to surrender personal information before proceeding.  Not only this, but a frontpage for a new service must also educate the user as to what the service is, and why one should bother at all.  Looking at the average frontpage certain design patterns emerge.  There is the 1-2-3 steps page, the watch this short video tactic, the let’s get started  – give us your email strategy.  What did you think when you first saw facebook? linked in? What made you get your twitter account set up? And in case you are wondering, I am trying out  the Tell me i’d love to hear strategy. Continue reading

Hello world! no, strike that and make it “hello, world”

Welcome to WordPress. This is your first post. Edit or delete it, then start blogging!

In 1972, Brian Kernighan wrote a small program.  When executed the program writes “hello, world” to the screen. This program was published in Tutorial Introduction to the Language B, and with it, Keringhan started a long tradition of  “hello world” programs written to demonstrate the grammar of each new computer language. WordPress, too,  followed this tradition using these words for each default post in every new blog that is installed.  With over 400 programs, and in more than 60 human languages the hello world collection continues to grow.

hello world - Tutorial Introduction to the Language B, 1972
Continue reading